The idea that a short sample of handwriting can reveal key dark and nefarious traits in another person is enticing. If you are considering dating, marriage, or a business relationship… you must be investigate and be cautious if your future partner has any of these five Hell Traits. These easy-to-spot primary traits can be quickly found in a short sample of cursive handwriting. If you match more than 2 out of 5…your relationship is in for misery and unpleasant times.
Alfred Binet was convinced to conduct research into graphology from to He called it "the science of the future" despite rejection of his results by graphologists.
His major contribution to the field can be found in Handschrift und Charakter.
This organization and its system split the American graphology world in two. Students had to choose between graphoanalysis or holistic graphology. Many studies have been conducted to assess its effectiveness to predict personality and job performance. Recent studies testing the validity of using handwriting for predicting personality traits and job performance have been consistently negative.
Professional graphologists using handwriting analysis were just as ineffective as lay people at predicting performance in a study. Dean did a meta-analysis on some studies: Dean showed that graphologists have failed unequivocally to demonstrate the validity or reliability of their art for predicting work performance, aptitudes, or personality.
Graphology thus fails according to the standards a genuine psychological test must pass before it can ethically be released for use on an unsuspecting public. Dean found that no particular school of graphology fared better than any other In fact, no graphologist of any stripe was able to show reliably better performance than untrained amateurs making guesses from the same materials.
In the vast majority of studies, neither group exceeded chance expectancy. Unfortunately, this is just as unscientific as the others. No amount of sciencey sounding language can make up for a technique failing when put to a scientifically controlled test.
Additional specific objections[ edit ] The Barnum effect the tendency to interpret vague statements as specifically meaningful and the Dr. Fox effect  the tendency for supposed experts to be validated based on likeability rather than actual skill make it difficult to validate methods of personality testing.
These phenomena describe the observation that individuals will give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored specifically for them, but are in fact vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of people.
See, for example, Tallent Regardless of the validity of handwriting analysis, the research results imply that it is not applicable for any specific individual, but may be applicable to a group.
Some important principles of graphology are vague enough to allow significant room for a graphologist to skew interpretations to suit a subject or preconceived conclusion. For example, one of the main concepts in the theory of Ludwig Klages is form-niveau or form-level: In practice, this can lead the graphologist to interpret signs positively or negatively depending on whether the subject has high or low social status.
Please help improve it by replacing them with more appropriate citations to reliable, independent, third-party sources. October Learn how and when to remove this template message Each approach to handwriting analysis has spawned several systems.
Integrative graphology focuses on strokes and their relation to personality. The psychograph is an additional psychogram method.
The University of UrbinoItaly:Handwriting Analysis Letter A lowercase. Learn graphology letter by letter. Ovals as the synthesis of personality. Meaning of letter a in graphology. Signature Analysis. Your signature is unique.
It is also your public face. Business letters should not be used for analysis as they have a standard format. Signature on left: writer seems in public to be withdrawing from the future, clinging to the past. May be a pose.
Signature falls more than handwriting. Analyze Your Handwriting, by John Cowens. Analyzing the handwriting. Letter Slope: Notice how the words and letters slant.
This feature gives insights into a person's sociability. The greater the slant, the more extreme the personality. Do you agree with handwriting analysis. Handwriting Analysis Letter M and Interpersonal Relationships Handwriting Analysis: Letter M. Graphology is a graphical projective technique that studies the handwritten structure with the objective of getting to the most intimate side of the human being.
Handwriting Analysis Signature: This refers to the distance between the letters and words that compose the name and the last name or last names.
Variants are condensed name and last name, signatures of spaced letters and signatures of condensed letters. The spaces between letters in words is larger than normal so she is self-confident, the spaces between words is large so she has problems dealing with other people.
The overall size of her writing, kind of large, indicates that she is easily distracted. Without handwriting analysis, one can conclude this individual is extremely self.